Biographies of Plenary Panelists


J.D. Abolins has worked with computers and networks for over 17 years and with the Internet for 10 years. He works as a network support specialist for a civilian government agency in the northeastern USA. At work, he deals with a wide range of computer issues including Web design, information law issues and computer security. He is a member of the International Computer Security Association (formerly the National Computer Security Association). He has worked with BBSs and Web sites. J.D. Abolins has contributed material about computer viruses and privacy for several computer books. He often writes articles for local computer users group newsletters. Currently, he runs the Meyda Online Web pages.

Katherine Albrecht is the founder and director of CASPIAN, Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (, a national grassroots organization educating consumers about retail privacy issues since 1999. Ms. Albrecht is currently an advanced doctoral candidate at Harvard University where she is researching consumer privacy issues. She holds an undergraduate degree in International Marketing and is widely acknowledged as an expert on supermarket data collection programs.

Patrick Ball, Ph.D., is Deputy Director of the Science and Human Rights Program. Since 1991, he has designed information management systems and conducted quantitative analysis for large-scale human rights data projects for truth commissions, non-governmental organizations, tribunals and United Nations missions in El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, South Africa, Kosovo, Sri Lanka, Sierra Leone, and Peru. Dr. Ball has published several AAAS reports on statistics and human rights. His most recent work, Killings and Refugee Flow in Kosovo March - June 1999, was presented in testimony in the trial of Slobodan Milošević at the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia.

David Banisar is Director of the Freedom of Information Project of Privacy International, a UK-based human rights group (, a Policy Fellow at the Open Society Institute, and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Department of Law, University of Leeds. He has been working in the field of information policy for over twelve years for a variety of NGOs and was one of the founders at the Electronic Privacy Information Center. In 2001, he was a fellow at the Harvard Information Infrastructure Project at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He is the author of numerous studies, books, and articles on privacy, surveillance and data protection, including The Electronic Privacy Papers (John Wiley and Sons, 1997) and two major studies of international developments in information law: Privacy and Human Rights: An International Study of Privacy Laws and Practices (1998, 1999, 2000 editions) which review the privacy, data protection, surveillance and FOIA laws and practices in 55 countries and co-authored Encryption and Liberty (1999, 2000 editions), which reviewed the encryption policies of 100 countries.

Bob Barr represented the 7th District of Georgia in the U. S. House of Representatives for eight years, from 1995 to 2003. Bob served as a senior member of the Judiciary Committee, where he chaired a subcommittee. He also helped lead some of the most important oversight hearings in the House on the Judiciary Committee, as Vice-Chairman of the Government Reform Committee, and as an eight-year veteran of the Committee on Financial Services.
Bob has remained active with many of the same issues that occupied his time and attention in the Congress, including, tax reduction, regulatory reform, and protecting the Right to Privacy. Recognizing Bob Barr’s leadership in this area, New York Times columnist William Safire has called Bob "Mr. Privacy." Bob Barr occupies the 21st Century Liberties Chair for Freedom and Privacy at the American Conservative Union, serves as Distinguished Fellow with Lt. Col. Oliver North’s Freedom Alliance, serves as a Board Member at the Patrick Henry Center, and is the Honorary Chair for Citizens United. He also provides advice to several organizations, including consulting on privacy issues with the ACLU, and is a member of the Legal Advisory Board for Southeastern Legal Foundation. He is an occasional contributor to The American Spectator, has served as a commentator for CNN, and his writings have appeared in numerous academic, local, regional, and national publications. Bob serves on the Board of the National Rifle Association of America.

Ann Beeson is the Associate Legal Director of the American Civil Liberties Union, at the ACLU headquarters in New York City. She has litigated numerous cases across the country to promote and protect civil liberties, and she assists in managing the ACLU national legal program. She was recently named one of America's Top 50 Women Litigators by The National Law Journal. Ms. Beeson is currently leading efforts to challenge the government’s expanded surveillance powers under the USA Patriot Act. She represents libraries and bookstores who are concerned about growing government requests for information about citizens’ reading habits, and has filed a brief opposing the government’s attempt to use foreign intelligence powers to spy on U.S citizens. In November 2001, Ms. Beeson argued before the United States Supreme Court in Ashcroft v. ACLU, a challenge to the Child Online Protection Act (COPA), in which the lower courts struck down Congress= second attempt to impose criminal sanctions on protected Internet speech. The Supreme Court recently remanded the case to the Third Circuit but left the injunction in place. As counsel for plaintiffs in Reno v. ACLU, Ms. Beeson was a primary architect of the landmark case in which the Supreme Court in 1997 declared the Communications Decency Act (CDA) -- the first federal Internet censorship law -- unconstitutional and unequivocally affirmed free speech rights in cyberspace.

Yochai Benkler is a Professor at the New York University School of Law. He is the Director of the Engleberg Center for Innovation Law and Policy, and of the Information Law Institute. His research focuses on the effects of laws that regulate information production and exchange on the distribution of control over information flows, knowledge, and cultural production in the digital environment. He has written about rules governing infrastructure, such as telecommunications and broadcast law, rules governing private control over information, such as intellectual property, privacy, and e-commerce, and constitutional law. Professor Benkler teaches information law and policy in the digital environment, communications law, theoreis of intellectual property, and property law. Before coming to NYU, Benkler clerked for Associate Justice Stephen Breyer of the United States Supreme Court, and had earlier been an associate in the corporate practice group of Ropes & Gray in Boston. He received his J.D from Harvard Law School and his LL.B. from Tel-Aviv University. At both schools he was an editor of the law review.

Paula H. Boyd is currently Regulatory Counsel to Microsoft Corporation, where she advocates Microsoft’s positions before the FCC and in the Congress. Prior to joining Microsoft, Paula was Senior Counsel to the Senate Subcommittee on Communications. While there, she also drafted legislation, developed legislative strategy, organized hearings and briefings, managed consideration of bills on the Senate Floor, and advocated the Senate position in House and Senate Conferences. She specifically handled issues such as broadband deployment, spectrum management, digital television transition, and competition in the local telecommunications marketplace. Paula joined the Office of the General Counsel of the Federal Communications Commission in February of 1994 where she reviewed draft orders involving, broadcast issues and worked on issues involving tax certificates and preferences for designated entities in PCS. In September of 1994, Paula began working with the International Bureau on satellite policy issues.

Ann Brick has served as a staff attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Northern California since January 1991. Brick's First Amendment work at the ACLU focuses in large part on Internet issues, with a particular emphasis on rights of free expression and privacy. Brick was the co-author of a friend of the court brief filed on behalf of the ACLU and a consortium of other free speech advocates in Yahoo! Inc. v. La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et L’Antisemitisme. Most recently, Brick has been involved in a federal court challenge to policies by California state prisons that prohibit prisoners from receiving mail containing material of any kind that has been printed from the Internet. Clement v. California Department of Corrections. In addition, Brick has filed friend of the court briefs in cases such as Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, where the United States Supreme Court invalidated provisions of the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, which defined the term "child pornography" to include computer generated images that only "appear to be" real children; and Kathleen R. v. City of Livermore, holding that a parent could not require a public library to censor the Internet access of its patrons; Intel, Corp. v. Hamidi, in which the California Supreme Court will decide whether the doctrine of trespass to chattels can be applied to censor email.

Ian Brown is director of the Foundation for Information Policy Research. FIPR's aim is to undertake cutting edge research on information society issues and promote dialogue between policymakers, technologists and the public in the UK and Europe. It has done extensive work on communications and healthcare privacy, copyright and e-voting. Dr Brown is an honourary research fellow at London University, from where he received a PhD in communications security. He is advising the US government on the security of their next-generation emergency communications systems, and has consulted for other large organizations such as the BBC and Credit Suisse. He is also a trustee of Privacy International.

Marco Cappato was than appointed national secretary of the Movement and of the General Council of the Transnational Radical Party. After a brief experience in the field of management and human resources at the Galbani de Melzo Institute, he started to collaborate with the radical group within the European Parliament in 1995. In 1996 he was appointed treasurer of the CORA (Radical Antiprohibitionist coordinator). In 1997 and 1998 he was the Transnational Radical Party representative before the United Nations in New York. From February 1999 to July 2001 he was Coordinator to the "Radical Comity for the liberal revolution of the United States of Europe". Since June 1999 he's been a European parliamentarian within the Lista Bonino. Due to his efforts in countering the generalized control proposals in the field of electronic communications he was awarded European of the Year, by the weekly newspaper "the European Voice". In December 2001 he was arrested in Manchester for a non-violent action of civil disobedience in connection with the British laws that condemn the possession of drugs for personal use. From March to November 2002 he was the president of the Transnational Radical Party board. Since October 2002 he's been the coordinator of the Parliamentarians for Antiprohibitionist Action.

Jeff Chester is Executive Director of the Center for Digital Democracy. A former journalist and filmmaker, his work has appeared in many publications and on PBS. In the 1980's, Jeff created the national media campaign that prompted the creation of the Independent Television Service. In 1990, he co-founded the National Campaign for Freedom of Expression and created Ralph Nader's Teledemocracy Project. He co-founded and, until 2000, was the executive director of the Center for Media Education. In 1996, Newsweek Magazine named him one of the Internet's fifty most influential people. He established CDD in 2001 with the support of a Stern Family Foundation "Public Interest Pioneer" award grant. Chester holds an MSW in community mental health from UC Berkeley. He is currently writing a book for The New Press on the electronic media and the public interest.

Tracy Cohen is a Graduate Fellow at the Centre for Innovation Law and Policy, at the University of Toronto. Cohen's current research is concerned with trade in telecommunication services and development in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Other teaching and research interests include regulatory theory; institutional design; cyber-rights and liberties with a specific focus on privacy, surveillance and lawful access. Current writing projects include collaboration on the production of a Handbook of South African Telecommunications Law and a book reviewing the first five years of South Africa's telecoms liberalization program. Cohen was a visiting scholar at the Columbia Institute for Tele-information in 2000. She holds a B.A., LL.B. and LL.M from Wits University and is a Doctoral Candidate in Law at the University of Toronto.

Katie Corrigan is a Legislative Counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union in its Washington National Office. Ms. Corrigan is responsible for defending civil liberties in Congress and in the Executive Branch in the area of individual privacy. Ms. Corrigan has testified several times before Congress and written on numerous legislative and administrative proposals. She has also made public presentations on privacy and provided comment to the media. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and Georgetown University Law Center, Ms. Corrigan worked for several years as counsel in the United States Senate before leaving the Hill to join the ACLU in September 2001.

Simon Davies - Specialist in privacy and the impact of technology on society and the individual. Key areas include the development of new surveillance systems and techniques, the evolution of international governmental cooperation, the regulation of privacy oversight and protection, the development of surveillance over electronic media and the use of technology as a method of social and political control. Key areas of interest are identity systems, biometrics, CCTV, national security systems, encryption regulation, international cooperation, methods of policing, data matching, privacy and the media, Internet censorship, terrorism law and consumer rights.

Jim Dempsey joined CDT at the beginning of 1997. He became Deputy Director in 2001 and Executive Director in 2003. In addition to day-to-day management responsibilities, he works on privacy and electronic surveillance issues and heads CDT's international project, the Global Internet Policy Initiative (GIPI). Prior to joining CDT, Mr. Dempsey was Deputy Director of the Center for National Security Studies. From 1995 to 1996, Mr. Dempsey also served as special counsel to the National Security Archive, a non-governmental organization that uses the Freedom of Information Act to gain the declassification of documents on the U.S. foreign policy. From 1985 to 1994, Mr. Dempsey was assistant counsel to the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Mr. Dempsey has traveled extensively outside the U.S. to speak on civil liberties issues and consult with government officials and human rights organizations. From 1980 to 1984, Mr. Dempsey was an associate with the Washington, D.C. law firm of Arnold & Porter. Mr. Dempsey is author of several articles on Internet policy, including Communications Privacy In The Digital Age: Revitalizing The Federal Wiretap Laws To Enhance Privacy, and co-author of the recently revised and updated (2002) book Terrorism & the Constitution: Sacrificing Civil Liberties in the Name of National Security (with Prof. David Cole of Georgetown law school).

Will Doherty serves as the Media Relations Director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, where he pays special attention to Internet blocking and censorship issues. Will also works as the Executive Director of the Online Policy Group, advocating "one Internet with equal access for all". Prior to founding the Online Policy Group, he was the Director of Online Community Development at the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD), where he focused on the online rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. He managed GLAAD's Digital Media Resource Center in San Francisco, cultivating strategic partnerships in Silicon Valley and beyond. Will has 20 years of experience as a computing consultant and online activist. In the early 1980's, he worked on the ARPANET, precursor of the Internet. He served as the Globalization Operations Manager at Sybase, Inc., and as a Localization Program Manager and a Technical Writer for Sun Microsystems, Inc. He has designed and implemented Internet strategies and websites for dozens of nonprofit community and advocacy organizations.

Benjamin Edelman is a student at the Harvard Law School and a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society. He has studied Internet filtering for three years, including both commercial filtering applications and nationwide filtering used by certain governments. He served as an expert in Multnomah County Public Library et al., vs. United States of America, et al., challenging the constitutionality of the Children's Internet Protection Act, a 2000 statute requiring filtering software in certain public libraries and schools receiving federal funding. Mr. Edelman's other major areas of research are domain names, ICANN, and quantitative analysis of Internet usage.

Henry Farrell is Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science in the University of Toronto. He received his B.A. (Politics and Economics) and M.A. (Politics) from University College Dublin, as well as an M.A. in German and European Studies and a Ph.D. from Georgetown University. He has published several articles on the governance of the new economy and privacy. Further details at, and

Maria Farrell works for the E-Business, IT and Telecoms Commission of the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris, and was previously International Policy Executive for E-Commerce at the Law Society of England and Wales, and E-Business Policy Adviser at the Confederation of British Industry. During her time in the UK, Maria Farrell lobbied extensively on the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, the Council of Europe Convention of Cybercrime, and the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act. She has contributed articles on cybercrime and electronic surveillance to E-Commerce Law and Policy, and spoken on internet privacy and security at the 21st Century Trust and the Computer Security Research Centre of the London School of Economics. Maria Farrell’s contributions to CFP 2003 will not represent the views of the ICC, but her own analysis and insight from several years of lobbying on these issues.

Dan Gillmor- I came to the Mercury News in September 1994 after about six years with the Detroit Free Press. Before that, I was with the Kansas City Times and several newspapers in Vermont. I've freelanced for lots of publications including the New York Times, Boston Globe and the Economist magazine. Between the first and second semesters of my sophomore year in college, I played music professionally for seven years. My band's music ranged from '20s jazz to rock to R&B to country to folk. We recorded two albums. They were artistic (but, sigh, not financial) successes. I still play, but only in my living room. I learned some Fortran programming in high school and have forgotten almost all of it; Visual Basic is about my speed today. My first computer was a late-1970s Radio Shack model. I also had one of the first Osbornes. Then I got an IBM XT, followed by a 386 clone and a 486 clone. I use a Pentium and a Mac at work. Operating systems I run include Windows 95, Windows NT 4.0 and the MacOS. I'm playing with Linux, a Unix clone that runs on IBM-compatible machines. I do not regard hardware and software -- especially operating systems -- as religions; I use what works best for me at the moment.

Jane Ginsburg, Morton L. Janklow Professor of Literary and Artistic Property Law, has been a member of the Columbia Law School faculty since 1987. She teaches Legal Methods, Copyright Law, and Trademarks Law, and is the author or co-author of casebooks in all three subjects. Recent lectures and articles on domestic and international copyright subjects have explored the legal implications of electronic creation and distribution of works of authorship. Professor Ginsburg has taught French and U.S. copyright law and U.S. legal methods and contracts law at the University of Paris and other French universities. A graduate of the University of Chicago (BA 1976, MA 1977), she received a JD in 1980 from Harvard, and a Diplôme d'études approfondies in 1985 and a Doctorate of Law in 1995 from the University of Paris II.

Ira Glasser served as Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union since 1978 until 2001. Previously, he was executive director of the New York Civil Liberties Union. Prior to his affiliation with the ACLU, Glasser was a mathematician and a member of the science and mathematics faculties of Queens College and Sarah Lawrence College. He was also editor of Current magazine. Glasser authored a book, Visions of Liberty: The Bill of Rights for All Americans, published in November 1991. In addition to Visions, Glasser is a widely published essayist on civil liberties principles and issues, whose writings have appeared in The New York Times, The Village Voice, Harper's, The New Republic, The Nation, and Christianity and Crisis, among other publications. He is also the co-author of Doing Good: The Limits of Benevolence, published by Pantheon in 1978.

Kimberley Heitman is a Perth, Western Australia, lawyer specializing in technology law and Internet governance. He is President of the Western Australian Internet Association, former Chairman and current Board member of Electronic Frontiers Australia, Deputy Chair of the Australian Domain Authority (auDA) and is involved in a number of "digital divide" projects. Kim is a father of three and is employed as a university lawyer and company director.

Ian (Gus) Hosein is a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Information Systems at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is also a fellow with Privacy International, a London-based human rights organization. His research areas include technology policy, regulation and jurisdiction, international legal co-operation in criminal and terrorist matters. More information can be found at

Claire Kelly is an Assistant Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School and an Associate Director of the Law School's Center for the Study of International Business Law. Professor Kelly joined the faculty in 1997, following several years of experience in international trade law. As an associate at Coudert Brothers, she advised companies on governmental compliance and litigated a broad variety of international trade matters. Her scholarship has focused on international trade and administrative law and recent articles have been published in the Michigan Journal of International Law, the Minnesota Law Review, the Brooklyn Journal of International Law, and the American University Law Review.

Kijoong Kim is a lawyer with the legal council of Jinbonet and he is a member of Lawyers for a Democratic Society.

Cédric Laurant is Policy Counsel with the Electronic Privacy Information Center.  He concentrates on international privacy issues and comparative policy and legal aspects of European and US privacy regimes. Cédric's recent work has focused on video surveillance, governmental electronic surveillance and transborder data flows in the European Union and the United States, European telecommunications and privacy laws, Canada's new anti-terrorism legislation, the Council of Europe Cyber-crime Convention, and the World Summit on the Information Society.  He is supervising production of the 2003 edition of Privacy and Human Rights.  He also coordinates EPIC's actions within two international coalitions: the Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC) and the Trans Atlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD). Cédric has also participated as photographer, researcher and legal expert in "Observing Surveillance". Prior to his arrival at EPIC, Cédric worked with the Center for Democracy and Technology (1999) and Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman (2000).  Outside of EPIC, he is a co-founder of WebLegalis, a Belgian consulting firm in Internet law.

Paul Alan Levy has been a staff attorney at Public Citizen Litigation Group for nearly twenty-five years, specializing in rank-and-file labor law and, more recently, in Internet free speech issues. After being graduated from Reed College and the University of Chicago Law School, he clerked for Wade H. McCree, Jr. on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, and was Special Assistant to the Solicitor General of the United States before joining the Litigation Group in 1977. He has argued four cases in the Supreme Court of the United States and scores of cases in the United States Courts of Appeals (three of them en banc), and has appeared in numerous other state and federal courts. He was a visiting professor at Cardozo Law School in 1983-1984. He is on the Board of Directors of the Association for Union Democracy and on the Steering Committee of the Labor and Employment Committee of the National Lawyers Guild. His amicus brief in the case of Dendrite v. Doe,! 342 N.J. Super. 134, 775 A.2d 756 (App. Div. 2001), helped set the legal and evidentiary standards that plaintiffs must satisfy before compelling the identification of anonymous Internet speakers. His arguments in Taubman Co. v. Webfeats, 319 F.3d 770 (6th Cir. 2003) are similarly helping to set the standards for the the right to use a company's names for an Internet "gripe site" about that company.

Lawrence Lessig is a Professor of Law at Stanford Law School and founder of the school’s Center for Internet and Society. Prior to joining the Stanford faculty, he was the Berkman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Lessig was also a fellow at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, and a Professor at the University of Chicago Law School. He clerked for Judge Richard Posner on the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals and Justice Antonin Scalia on the United States Supreme Court. More recently, Professor Lessig represented web site operator Eric Eldred in the ground-breaking case Eldred v. Ashcroft, a challenge to the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Lessig was named one of Scientific American's Top 50 Visionaries, for arguing "against interpretations of copyright that could stifle innovation and discourse online." He is the author of The Future of Ideas and Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. He also chairs the Creative Commons project. Professor Lessig is a boardmember of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a Board Member of the Center for the Public Domain, and a Commission Member of the Penn National Commission on Society, Culture and Community at the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Lessig earned a BA in economics and a BS in management from the University of Pennsylvania, an MA in philosophy from Cambridge, and a JD from Yale. Professor Lessig teaches and writes in the areas of constitutional law, contracts, comparative constitutional law, and the law of cyberspace. He is currently planning a course, Law and Virtual Worlds, for Spring 2003 with Julian Dibbell.

Dr. Herbert Lin is senior scientist and senior staff officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies, here he has been study director of major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography's Role in Securing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high-technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy), and a 2002 study on protecting kids on the Internet (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He also has significant expertise in math and science education. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT.

Heather Mac Donald is a John M. Olin fellow at the Manhattan Institute and a contributing editor to City Journal. Heather’s work at City Journal has canvassed a range of topics including policing and "racial" profiling, homelessness and homeless advocacy, educational policy, the New York courts, and business improvement districts. Ms. Mac Donald’s writings have also appeared in The Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, New York Times, The New Republic, Partisan Review, The New Criterion, Public Interest, and Academic Questions. Her book The Burden of Bad Ideas—a collection of essays from the pages of City Journal—details the effects of the sixties’ counterculture’s destructive march through America’s institutions. Her latest book, Are Cops Racist?—another City Journal anthology—investigates the workings of the police, the controversy over so-called racial profiling, and the anti-profiling lobby’s harmful effects on black Americans. A non-practicing lawyer, Ms. Mac Donald has clerked for the Honorable Stephen Reinhardt, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, has been an attorney-advisor in the Office of the General Counsel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and a volunteer with the National Resource Defense Fund in New York City. She has testified before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the Judiciary of the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1998, she was appointed to Mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s task force on the City University of New York, thanks in large part to her City Journal essays on education.

Kate Martin has been Director of the Center for National Security Studies since 1992. Previously, she served as litigation director for the Center. From 1993 to 1999, Ms. Martin was also co-director of a project on Security Services in a Constitutional Democracy in 12 former communist countries in Europe. Ms. Martin has taught Strategic Intelligence and Public Policy at Georgetown University Law School and also served as general counsel to the National Security Archive, a research library located at George Washington University from 1995 to 2001. Since September 11, 2001, she has testified before Congress concerning the USA Patriot Act , filed amici briefs challenging government surveillance and the illegal detentions of US citizens as "enemy combatants, and published "Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties," Human Rights, Winter 2002. She also serves as lead counsel in the lawsuit brought by more than 20 organizations challenging the secret arrests of 1200 people in the wake of September 11. Among her publications are: Civil Liberties and National Security on the Internet, published in The Information Age Anthology, vol. II: National Security Implications of the Information Age (CCRP 2000): with Paul Hoffman Safeguarding Liberty: National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information: United States of America; Preventive Detention of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the United States since September 11th.

Declan McCullagh is the chief political correspondent for CNET's An award-winning journalist, McCullagh writes and speaks frequently about technology, law, and politics. From 1998 to 2002, he was the Washington bureau chief for Wired News. Previously he was a reporter for Time Digital Daily, Time's The Netly News, and Time Magazine, as well as a correspondent for HotWired. McCullagh's articles have appeared in scores of publications including George magazine, The New Republic, the Wall Street Journal, Playboy magazine, Communications of the ACM, and the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. He has appeared on NPR's All Things Considered, ABC News' Good Morning America, NBC Evening News, Court TV, and CNN. He is an adjunct faculty member at Case Western Reserve University's law school.

Congressman Jerrold Nadler is now serving his sixth full term in the House of Representatives. Congressman Nadler represents New York’s Eighth Congressional district. Representative Nadler was first elected to Congress in 1992, after serving for 16 years in the New York State Assembly. He has emerged as a national leader on civil rights, civil liberties, transportation, and a host of progressive issues such as access to health care, support for the arts and the expansion of the Social Security system. The Congressman was re-elected in 2002 with a resounding 75% of the vote. Representative Nadler is perhaps best known as a prominent member of the House Judiciary Committee. There, along with his role in defending individual rights and religious freedoms, the Congressman was a vigorous defender of the Constitution during the Presidential impeachment hearings. Congressman Nadler’s unwavering demand for bipartisan adherence to the Constitution earned him national praise. In its "Hall of Fame" tribute to the Congressman, Vanity Fair said that Jerrold Nadler epitomizes "liberalism the way it ought to be." He is considered an unapologetic defender of those who might otherwise be forgotten by the American law or economy, but is respected specifically for his creative and pragmatic legislative approaches. Indeed, Mr. Nadler is regarded nationwide as a champion of progressive causes, and his work has garnered him 100% ratings from such groups as Planned Parenthood, NAACP, Human Rights Campaign, Children’s Defense Fund, the League of Conservation Voters and the American Federation of Teachers.

Eli Noam has been Professor of Economics and Finance at the Columbia Business School since 1976. In 1990, after having served for three years as Commissioner with the New York State Public Service Commission, he returned to Columbia. He is the Director of the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information. CITI is a university-based research center focusing on strategy, management, and policy issues in telecommunications, computing, and electronic mass media. In addition to leading CITI's research activities, Noam initiated the MBA concentration in the Management of Media, Communications, and Information at the Business School and the Virtual Institute of Information, an independent, web-based research facility. He has also taught at Columbia Law School and Princeton University's Economics Department and Woodrow Wilson School, and has been a virtual visiting professor at the University of St. Gallen, the MCM Institute. Besides the over 400 articles in economics, legal, communications, and other journals that Professor Noam has written on subjects such as communications, information, public choice, public finance, and general regulation, he has also authored, edited, and co-edited more than 20 books.

Toshimaru (Toshi) Ogura is Professor of Toyama University in Japan. He is a Board member of JCA-NET and Association for Progressive Communications(APC) and also works with several human rights/privacy/civil liberty groups in Japan including the Networkers against Surveillance Taskforce (NaST, a member of GILC), Anti Surveillance Network. His recent work has been on Kanshi Shakai To Praibashi (Surveillance Society and Privacy) as editor, Eshuron (Echelon). He has written many articles about communication rights, anti-surveillance issues. He is now preparing the Big Brother Award Japan in next June.

Dinah PoKempner is Deputy General Counsel at Human Rights Watch. Ms. PoKempner supervises advocacy on all matters of international law for Human Rights Watch, including establishing international legal tribunals, setting international standards, drafting legislation, and legal reform initiatives in various countries. She works mainly with the Asia division, and has conducted research on human rights in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and former Yugoslavia. She currently works on compiling the first comprehensive handbook on the production of evidence for use in prosecuting serious human rights violations.

Arturo Quirantes is a professor at the University of Granada (Spain). He is a member of CPSR-Spain (the Spanish chapter of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility), a freelance researcher, and a writer on cryptography (including its historical ramifications), as well as co-organizer of the Big Brother Awards Spain.

George Radwanski, the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, has had a lifelong involvement in national affairs and major policy issues. A graduate of McGill University in Montreal with degrees in political science and in law, Mr. Radwanski had a 20-year career in journalism that took him to the highest levels of the profession. He began this career in 1965 at the Montreal Gazette, successively as a reporter, columnist, associate editor, and Ottawa-based national affairs columnist. He subsequently was Ottawa editor and national affairs columnist of the Financial Times of Canada, before becoming editorial page editor and then Editor-in-Chief of The Toronto Star, Canada's largest newspaper. In 1985, Mr. Radwanski left the field of journalism and was appointed by then Ontario Premier David Peterson to head two major policy studies of national importance: a study of the service sector and the post-industrial economy, and a study of the elementary and high school education system. He then became a public policy, strategy and communications consultant, providing advice to the public and private sectors. In 1996, at the request of the Government of Canada, Mr. Radwanski chaired the mandate review of Canada Post Corporation. Mr. Radwanski is the author of the best-selling political biography, Trudeau, published in 1978, and co-author of two other books. He is a two-time winner of the National Newspaper Award for editorial writing. Mr. Radwanski was appointed interim Privacy Commissioner effective September 1, 2000. On October 19, following approval by Parliament, he was appointed Privacy Commissioner of Canada for a seven-year term.

Mark Roberti is the founder and editor of RFID Journal, a Web site that covers RFID and its business applications. Before launching the Journal, he covered business-to-business technologies for the Industry Standard. His work has appeared in Fortune, Business 2.0, The New York Times, The International Herald Tribune, The Asian Wall Street Journal and numerous magazines.

Anthony D. Romero is the ACLU's sixth executive director, and he is the first Latino and openly gay man to serve in that capacity. He came to the organization from the Ford Foundation's Human Rights and International Cooperation Program, which he led through a period of extraordinary growth, transforming it into Ford's largest and most dynamic grant-making unit. As director of that program, he channeled approximately $90 million in grants to civil-rights, human rights and peace projects in 2000, and launched groundbreaking initiatives in affirmative action, voting rights and redistricting, immigrants' rights, women's rights, reproductive freedom and lesbian/gay rights. Romero also served for nearly five years as a Ford Foundation Program Officer for Civil Rights and Racial Justice; and for two years at the Rockefeller Foundation, where he led a foundation review that helped to determine future directions in civil-rights advocacy. Born in New York City to immigrant parents from Puerto Rico, Romero was the first in his family to graduate from high school. A graduate of Stanford University Law School and Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public Policy and International Affairs, he was a Dinkelspiel Scholar at Stanford, a Cane Scholar at Princeton, and a National Hispanic Scholar at both institutions. He sits on several not-for-profit boards and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the New York State Bar Association.

Michael Scardaville
The Heritage Foundation Davis Institute for International Policy Studies, Davis Institute. As a Policy Analyst, Michael Scardaville is primarily responsible for analyzing American homeland defense policy. During his time at The Heritage Foundation, Scardaville has also done research on the United Nations and the Balkans, including the UN and NATO peacekeeping missions in Kosovo and Bosnia. Scardaville was a key member of The Heritage Foundation's Homeland Security Task Force, which convened shortly after the September 11 attacks. Headed by former Attorney General Edwin Meese and former Ambassador Paul Bremer, the task force developed a detailed plan for the federal government to help reduce the likelihood of future attacks. Scardaville penned a chapter in the final task force report, focusing on infrastructure protection and internal security. He continues to monitor and assess the efforts to create a Department of Homeland Security, including laying out principles to be followed in creating an effective department. In addition to his homeland security studies, Scardaville has written on why the International Criminal Court of the United Nations needs to be reformed, why an open-ended mission in Kosovo was a bad idea for the United States, and how continued ballistic missile proliferation around the world reinforces the need for the U.S. to develop a missile defense system.

Bruce Schneier is an internationally-renowned security technologist and author, and is both a Founder and the Chief Technical Officer of Counterpane Internet Security, Inc. Counterpane provides Managed Security Monitoring services to organizations world-wide. Schneier is the author of six books, including Secrets & Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World. Published in October 2000, the book has already sold 80,000 copies. One of his earlier books, Applied Cryptography, now in its second edition, is the seminal work in its field and has sold over 150,000 copies and has been translated into five languages. He writes the free email newsletter Crypto-Gram, which has over 70,000 readers. He has presented papers at many international conferences, and he is a frequent writer, contributing editor, and lecturer on the topics of cryptography, computer security, and privacy. Schneier designed the popular Blowfish encryption algorithm. And Schneier's Twofish was a finalist for the new Federal Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Schneier served on the board of directors of the International Association for Cryptologic Research, and is an Advisory Board member for the Electronic Privacy Information Center. Schneier holds an MS degree in computer science from American University and a BS degree in physics from the University of Rochester.

Michael Schooler is Deputy General Counsel of the National Cable Television Association ("NCTA"). This is Mike’s second tour of duty with NCTA. He began his legal career with the Washington, D.C. law firm of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, and joined NCTA as Associate General Counsel in 1982. He left as General Counsel in 1993 to become a partner in the Washington, D.C. law firm of Dow, Lohnes & Albertson. In September 1997, recognizing that there’s no place like home, he returned to NCTA, where he is once again working on the broad range of regulatory and policy issues facing the cable industry at the Federal Communications Commission and in the courts. He is a graduate of Harvard College and the University of Chicago Law School.

Nawar Shora, J.D. is Legal Advisor with the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC). Founded in 1980 by former Senator James Abourezk, ADC is now , the largest membership organization in the United States dedicated to protecting the civil rights and civil liberties of Arab Americans. Shora, along with colleagues Carol F. Khawly, J.D. and Kareem W. Shora, J.D., is responsible for operating the Legal Department, supervising legal assistants, communicating with the ADC administration on matters of legal importance to the organization, and providing legal analyses to individuals seeking assistance. Shora also represents the organization at various Congressional meetings, certain legally related media interviews, conferences, seminars, conventions, and negotiation procedures with parties accused of violating the civil rights of individuals. Shora is also in charge of the law enforcement outreach program. Nawar, who is fluent in Arabic, earned his Doctorate of Jurisprudence from the West Virginia University College of Law in May 2001. He was born in Damascus, Syria and moved to the United States in 1987. Nawar also holds a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism with cum laude honors.

Barbara Simons was President of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) from July 1998 until June 2000 and Secretary of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents in 1999. In 1993 Simons founded ACM’s US Public Policy Committee (USACM), which she currently co-chairs. She earned her Ph.D. in computer science from U.C. Berkeley in 1981; her dissertation solved a major open problem in scheduling theory. In 1980 she became a Research Staff Member at IBM's San Jose Research Center (now Almaden). In 1992 she joined IBM's Applications Development Technology Institute as a Senior Programmer and subsequently served as Senior Technology Advisor for IBM Global Services. Her main areas of research have been compiler optimization, algorithm analysis and design, and scheduling theory. Her work on clock synchronization won an IBM Research Division Award. She holds several patents and has authored or co-authored a book and numerous technical papers. Recently, Simons has been teaching technology policy at Stanford University. Simons is a Fellow of ACM and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She received the Alumnus of the Year Award from the Berkeley Computer Science Department, the Norbert Wiener Award from CPSR, the Outstanding Contribution Award from ACM, and the Pioneer Award from EFF. She was selected by c|net as one of its 26 Internet "Visionaries" and by Open Computing as one of the "Top 100 Women in Computing". Science Magazine featured her in a special edition on women in science.

Chuck Sims joined Proskauer Rose LLP in 1986 to strengthen its practice in libel, copyright and First Amendment litigation. Educated at Amherst College and Yale Law School, he came to the firm after a clerkship with the Honorable Raymond J. Pettine, of the United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, and nine years’ service as national staff counsel to the American Civil Liberties Union. At the ACLU, Chuck litigated First Amendment and national security cases and oversaw the ACLU's Supreme Court docket. He argued two cases in the Supreme Court, and appeals in the Second Circuit and District of Columbia Circuit. Since joining Proskauer, Chuck has concentrated on copyright, First Amendment, and defamation law. He has represented the motion picture studios in their ground-breaking and successful litigation against hackers who were publicly providing illegal software for decrypting DVDs, under the Digital Millenium Copyright Act, and Lexis-Nexis in its victory against an internet start-up which had attempted to steal the entire Lexis database for uploading onto the Web. He represents Lexis-Nexis in three national class actions brought by freelance writers seeking damages for inclusion of their articles on the Nexis database, which Nexis contends is authorized by rights duly transferred by newspapers and magazines.

Richard M. Smith is an Internet privacy and security consultant based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He works primarily with the media, policy makers, and law enforcement to interpret Internet technologies. He has more 25 years of experience in the computer software field. He is also the former president of Phar Lap Software and the former Chief Technology Officer of the Privacy Foundation.

David Sobel is General Counsel of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, DC. He has litigated numerous cases under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) seeking the disclosure of government documents on privacy policy, including electronic surveillance and encryption controls. His current cases seek disclosure of information concerning the USA PATRIOT Act, the Total Information Awareness program and the privacy impact of aviation security measures and other homeland security initiatives. He is also co-counsel in the pending challenge to government secrecy concerning post-September 11 detentions and participated in the recent submission of a civil liberties amicus brief in the first-ever proceeding of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. Mr. Sobel has a longstanding interest in civil liberties and information policy issues and has written and lectured on these issues frequently since 1981. He was formerly counsel to the non-profit National Security Archive, and his clients have included Coretta Scott King, the Nation magazine and ABC News. Mr. Sobel is a graduate of the University of Michigan and the University of Florida College of Law. He is a member of the Bars of Florida, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Supreme Court and several Federal Courts of Appeals.

Jay Stanley is the Communications Director of the Technology and Liberty Program of the American Civil Liberties Union, where he researches, writes and speaks about privacy and technology issues. Before joining the ACLU, Jay was an analyst at the technology research firm Forrester, where he focused on public policy issues related to the Internet. Before Forrester, he was American Politics editor at Facts on File, and spent several years as a graduate student in American History. He is a graduate of Williams College and holds an MA in American History from the University of Virginia.

Shari Steele Prior to becoming EFF's Executive Director in 2000, Shari served as EFF's Legal Director for eight years. She is also co-founder of, a nonprofit working to ensure sound technology policy in developing nations. She has spoken widely on civil liberties law in newly emerging technologies, including on the CBS Evening News, C-SPAN's Washington Journal, The Today Show, CNN, the BBC, and National Public Radio. As EFF's Legal Director, she advised the NTIA on hate crimes in telecommunications, the U.S. Sentencing Commission on sentencing guidelines for the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the No Electronic Theft Act, and the National Research Council on U.S. encryption policy. She has spoken about Internet law as part of the Smithsonian Institution's lecture series on the Internet, the ABA's TechWorld Conference, the National Law Journal's annual Computer Law Conference, and the National Forum for Women Corporate Counsel.

Barry Steinhardt served as Associate Director of the American Civil Liberties Union for the past 10 years. He was recently named as inaugural Director of the ACLU’s Program on Technology and Liberty. Steinhardt is a 1978 graduate of the Northeastern University School of Law. He was a co-founder of the Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC), the world's first international coalition of Non-Governmental Organizations concerned with the rights of Internet users to privacy and free expression. He is a member of the Advisory Committee to the US Census and the Blue Ribbon Panel on Genetics of the National Conference of State Legislatures. He was a member of the US delegation to the recent G-8 Government and Private Sector Tokyo conference on Cyber Crime. Steinhardt has spoken and written widely on privacy and information technology issues to audiences ranging from the National Conference of State Legislatures, to the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence, to the Hoover Institute, to the UNESCO Conference on Intellectual Property. He has written on privacy issues and free expression issues in a variety of periodicals ranging from USA Today to the Employment Testing Law and Policy Reporter, to the Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal.

Nadine Strossen, Professor of Law at New York Law School, has written, lectured and practiced extensively in the areas of constitutional law, civil liberties and international human rights. Since 1991, she has served as President of the American Civil Liberties Union, the first woman to head the nation's largest and oldest civil liberties organization. The National Law Journal has twice named Strossen one of "The 100 Most Influential Lawyers in America." In 1998, Vanity Fair Magazine included Strossen in "America's 200 Most Influential Women." In 1999, Ladies Home Journal included Strossen in "America's 100 Most Important Women." Since becoming ACLU President, Strossen has made more than 200 public presentations per year before diverse audiences, including on approximately 500 campuses and in many foreign countries. She comments frequently on legal issues in the national media, having appeared on virtually every national news program. Strossen's writings have been published in many scholarly and general interest publications (approximately 250 published works). Her book, Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex, and the Fight for Women's Rights (Scribner 1995), was named by the New York Times a "notable book" of 1995.

Peter P. Swire is a Professor of Law at the Ohio State University and director of that school’s Washington, D.C. summer program. From 1999 to early 2001 he served as the Clinton Administration's Chief Counselor for Privacy, in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. In that position, he coordinated Administration policy on the use of personal information in the public and private sectors, and served as point of contact with privacy and data protection officials in other countries. He was White House coordinator for the proposed and final HIPAA medical privacy rules, and played a leading role on topics including financial privacy, Internet privacy, encryption, public records and privacy, ecommerce policy, and computer security and privacy. With Lawrence Lessig, he is Editor of the Cyberspace Law Abstracts of the Social Science Research Network. Many of his writings appear at

Edward Tenner was born in Chicago and educated at Princeton University and the University of Chicago, where he received the Ph.D. in European history. As science editor and later as an executive editor at Princeton University Press, he sponsored book ranging from Birds of the USSR to Richard Feynman's QED. He is now an independent writer, speaker, and consultant. He has been a junior fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows, a visiting lecturer in the Humanities Council at Princeton, a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and a visitor in the School of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study, and in the departments of Geosciences and English at Princeton. He is the author of Tech Speak and Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (Vintage). His new book, Our Own Devices: The Past and Future of Body Technology, will appear with Alfred A. Knopf in June. He is a Senior Research Associate of the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, and lives in Plainsboro, New Jersey.

John Wadham has been the Director of Liberty since 1995. He spent six years working for law centres in London and then in 1989 he qualified as a solicitor. He worked in private practice in a civil liberties firm for three years before moving to Liberty. In 1992 he was promoted to the post of Director of Law and Policy at Liberty and appointed Director in 1995. He has acted for a large numbers of applicants in cases before the Commission and Court of Human Rights. He is the co-editor of Your Rights: The Liberty Guide; the civil liberties section of the Penguin Guide to the Law; the case law reports for the European Human Rights Law Review; the co-author of Blackstone's Guide to the Human Rights Act 1998 and Blackstones Guide to the Freedom of Information Act 2000. He also editor of the Blackstones Human Rights Series. He was a member of the Government's Human Rights Act Task Force and has been commissioned to train many public authorities, senior officials, police officers, court staff and lawyers on the Human Rights Act and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Mary Wirth presently is international counsel at Yahoo!, where she oversees litigation and compliance matters in over 20 countries. Prior to joining Yahoo!, Mary was an attorney with McCutchen, Doyle, Brown & Enersen in San Francisco, where she litigated media defense, product liability and complex construction matters in the state and federal courts. Mary also has practiced media and First Amendment law as in-house litigation counsel for the Fox entertainment companies and, before that, as an associate with O'Melveny & Myers. She has coached mock trial teams for the Constitutional Rights Foundation's national competition, is a graduate of various National Institute for Trial Advocacy programs, and has served as pro bono counsel for AIDS Project Los Angeles. At Hastings, she teaches Trial Advocacy I. Mary received her History degree magna cum laude form the University of California, Davis in 1989, where she was named Outstanding History Undergraduate. She then received her J.D., cum laude from Hastings in 1992, where she was an editor for the Hastings Law Journal and a judicial extern to U.S. District Court Judge D. Lowell Jensen.